Family balancing can be achieved by two methods: IUI or PGD.
IUI stands for intrauterine insemination. A catheter is used to place a concentrated amount of washed sperm directly into the uterus around the time of ovulation. The goal of IUI is to increase the number of sperm that reach the egg and subsequently increase the chance of fertilization.
IUI can be performed either in a natural cycle or a stimulated cycle. Ovulation induction involves stimulating the ovary to produce one or more eggs.
It is done to measure the growth of follicles. Type and doses of drug is calculated accordingly on individual basis to obtain optimum ovulation and to prevent side-effects. Usually folliculometry is done by transvaginal ultrasound scanning. [two to three times or more during a treatment cycle] .When the leading follicle measures > 17mm in diameter and the endometrium is well developed, an HCG injection is given to trigger maturity of the oocyte and ovulation. Insemination is done when ovulation is imminent or just after.
Procedure for insemination is very simple, fast and painless. It involves insertion of a speculum into the vagina to visualize the cervix and then cervix is cleaned with culture medium. The prepared sperm is then injected into the cavity of the womb using a fine plastic catheter. After insemination little rest for patient is advisable.
Implantation can take place anywhere from six to 12 days after ovulation to occur. Thus pregnancy test for hormone ? hCG should be done at least two weeks after the IUI procedure. Confirmation of pregnancy should be done by ultrasound scan for fetal heart after 4 weeks.
PGD stands for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. Till date it has the best success rate regarding choosing the gender of your upcoming baby. Steps involved in PGD are as follows:
First step in PGD is to create an embryo via IVF (in vitro fertilisation). Once the embryo is created it is cultured in incubator for 2-3 days and then cell biopsy is done.
Cell Biopsy & Chromosomal Testing:
The outer shell of each embryo created (number of embryos created varies among patients) is breached using a fine laser. Once a hole is made in the outre shell (zona pellucida), one or two cells are extracted from each embryo and are tested fr their chromosomal make-up using FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization) technology. The end result of the testing reveals the chromosomal make up of each embryo. XX indicates a female embryo and XY indicates a male embryo. Embryo of choice is then transferred via a catheter into the female partner’s uterus.
Embryo transfer (ET) is the same as in IVF and is usually done on the day 5 of your oocyte retrieval. ET is carried out vaginally by inserting a speculum to expose the opening of the uterus (cervix). In the embryology lab, a special catheter is loaded with the selected embryos and handed over the the consultant performing ET. He introduces the catheter in the uterus via the exposed uterine opening and releases the embryo/embryos at the optimal site in the uterus.After ET is performed a wait of two weeks is followed by a blood beta HCG to confirm the pregnancy.
For couples seeking family balancing PGD offers the highest chances of conceiving a baby of their choice. Chances of pregnancy with PGD are around 60%.