There are two types of laparoscope:
- A telescopic rod lens system, that is usually connected to a video camera (single chip or three chip).
- A digital laparoscope where the charge-coupled device is placed at the end of the laparoscope, eliminating the rod lens system.
A small cut is then made in or just below the belly-button measuring between 1 to 2cm. Through this the laparoscope is inserted gently into the abdomen.The laparoscope is a sterile surgical instrument that has special optics that allow small amounts of light to be transmitted effectively.Carbon dioxide gas is pumped through a channel in the laparoscope into the abdomen.his creates a space within which the surgeon can look or operate. Additional instruments are often required.
Many laparoscopies are performed as part of the investigation of abdominal or pelvic pain. Laparoscopy can be used to diagnose conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disease. As well as being a diagnostic procedure, laparoscopy can also be used to remove cysts on the ovaries and also free adhesions caused by ovarian diseases or other disease of the pelvic organs. Most sterilisations today are performed through a laparoscope. It is also used for surgical management of most ectopic pregnancies. Laparoscopic surgery is becoming increasingly popular with patients because the scars are smaller and generally the length of hospital stay is less also. Laparoscopic surgery requires special training of the surgeon or gynaecologist and the theatre nursing staff. The equipment is often expensive and not available in all hospitals.
The Laparoscopic surgery is helpful in the following conditions:
- Ovarian diathermy in polycystic ovaries
- Endometriosis and chocolate cyst
- Treatment of fallopian tube blockage